knee joint anatomy pdf

ANATOMY OF KNEE JOINT By : Dr. PAVAN Moderator : Dr. PRADEEP 2. The knee joint is a synovial joint this means it contains a fluid that lubricates it. The epidemiology of knee injuries in iranian male professional soccer players. ; Cvetanovich, G.L. Anatomy of Knee Stability 2.1. You seem to have javascript disabled. Johansson, H.; Sjölander, P.; Sojka, P. A sensory role for the cruciate ligaments. Knee bursitis: Pain, swelling, and warmth in any of the bursae of the knee. It consists of two bony articulations; the articulation between the femur and tibia bears most of the body weight, while the articulation between the patella and femur creates a frictionless transfer over the knee of the forces generated by contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle [. Burgess, P.; Clark, F.J. Characteristics of knee joint receptors in the cat. Rahnama, N.; Bambaeichi, E.; Daneshjoo, A. The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. Fabbriciani C, Oransky M, Zoppi U (1982) Il legamento popliteo arcuato e le sue varianti. Noyes, F.; Grood, E.; Torzilli, P. Current concepts review. The knee joint is the articulation between the femur, tibia and patella. Knee joint anatomy involves looking at each of the different structures in and around the knee. (SHENG, 2008) The knee consists of 2 joints: the femorotibial joint and the patellofemoral joint. ; Pietrosimone, B.G. The patella(or kneecap, as it is commonly called) is made of bone and sits in front of the knee. Ligaments join the knee bones and provide stability to the knee: Two C-shaped pieces of cartilage called the medial and lateral menisci act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia. They provide a good ‘seat’ on the tibial condyles for the corresponding femoral condyles. • Femur • Tibia • Fibula • Patella . The knee is usually viewed as consisting of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. The definitions of terms for motion and position of the knee and injuries of the ligaments. The knee is the meeting place of two important bones in the leg, the femur(the thighbone) and the tibia(the shinbone). Two round knobs called femoral condyles are found on the end of the femur. Using financial incentives to improve value in orthopaedics. An overview of the physiology of knee stability, mechanics, and hamstring stretch reflex will be presented in this review. They are distributed around high-motion areas to ensure smooth, friction-free movement. The Knee Joint • Poorly constructed in terms of stability - femur round, tibia flat. Sports Med. Quadriceps strength asymmetry after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction alters knee joint biomechanics and functional performance at time of return to activity. Physiotherapy Department, Shaikhan Al-Faresi Hospital, Kuwait Ministry of Health, Kuwait City 44007, Kuwait, Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation Alliance, School of Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. This introduction is part of the Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology’s Special Issue “The Knee: Structure, Function and Rehabilitation”. Ligaments are fibrous bands of tissue that connect bone to bone and provide support to joints. The anterior aspect of the knee consists predominantly of the quadriceps muscles, namely the rectus femoris (biarticular), vastus lateralis (monoarticular), vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius, and the primary function of these muscles is to extend the knee joint. The intercondylar articular cavity of the knee is enclosed by a fibrous joint capsule. A comprehensive understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the structures of the knee is necessary for accurate diagnoses and informed decisions regarding treatment plans. ; Aydin, C. The economics of preventing hospital falls: Demonstrating roi through a simple model. The lever is one of the sim- plest of all mechanical devices that can be called a ma-chine.The relationship of fulcrum to force to resistance distinguishes the different classes of levers. See knee joint stock video clips. Bauer, M.; Feeley, B.T. This is a common cause of knee pain in young people. Çabuk, H.; Kuşku Çabuk, F. Mechanoreceptors of the ligaments and tendons around the knee. ; Liu, H.; Nord, K.M. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. Download preview PDF. ; Kuenze, C.M. 52,968 knee joint stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. Rehabilit. Functional Anatomy of the Knee and Leg Mary Lloyd Ireland, MD ACSM TPC • Feb. 9, 2013 16 Knee joint and menisci, from aboveKnee joint and menisci, from above www.primalpictures.com. A common site of bursitis is at the deep infrapatellar bursa due to its vital role in preventing friction between the patellar tendon and the tibia. The knee joint is the largest joint in the body and connects the thigh with the lower leg. Lam, M.-H.; Fong, D.; Yung, P.; Ho, E.; Chan, W.-Y. It is formed by articulations between the patella, femur and tibia. Pacinian corpuscles are sensitive to the micro-vibrations that occur during knee movement and, in the cat, respond transiently to joint movement in any direction [, These proprioceptive fibres, together with the ligaments and muscles, combine to create reflex arcs that play a vital role in knee stability [. SEPTEMBER 2007 THE ANATOMY OF THE MEDIAL PART OF THE KNEE the adductor tubercle and was close to a small depression, which corresponded to the location of the attachment of the … References. ; Craig, E. Knee anatomy: A brief review. Search for "knee joint" in these categories. Synovial joints are enclosed by a ligament capsule and contain a fluid, called synovial fluid, that lubri - cates the joint. Synovial joints are enclosed by a ligament capsule and contain a fluid, called ; Swigler, C.W. PDF | The present paper is to know how the work is carried out in the field of biomechanics of knee. 1. a flexed position modifications enable axial rotation around a central pivot. Zlotnicki, J.P.; Naendrup, J.-H.; Ferrer, G.A. Acl injury risk in elite female youth soccer: Changes in neuromuscular control of the knee following soccer-specific fatigue. ; Shoji, H.; Bose, W.; Beck, C.; D’Ambrosia, R. The synergistic action of the anterior cruciate ligament and thigh muscles in maintaining joint stability. Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability. The structure was easily distinguishable from the thinner joint capsule lying anterior to it (Fig. The knee is stabilised by both primary stabilisers and secondary stabilisers. The genicular branches of the femoral and popliteal arteries, the circumflex fibular arteries, and the recurrent branches of the anterior tibial artery, all supply blood to the knee. Functional Anatomy in Knee Osteoarthritis: Patellofemoral Joint vs. Tibiofemoral Joint. The posterior aspect of the knee consists of the biceps femoris (biarticular), semimembranosus (monoarticular), and semitendinosus (monoarticular), which form the hamstring group of muscles which function as knee flexors. Some of these muscles have additional actions at the hip joint (biarticular) where they have dual actions at both the knee and hip. Jennings, A.G.; Seedhom, B.B. The knee is innervated by branches of the obturator, femoral, tibial, and common fibular nerves. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). A systematic review of the effect of proprioceptive and balance exercises on people with an injured or reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament. Hirschmann, M.; Müller, W. Complex function of the knee joint: The current understanding of the knee. The knee joint is a hinge type synovial joint, which mainly allows for flexion and extension (and a small degree of medial and lateral rotation). As a result, afferent feedback from these receptors provides the spinal and supraspinal neural networks information about joint position, movement, and nociception. Knee instability has been the focus of large number of studies over the last decade; however, a high incidence rate of injury still exists. The main features of the knee anatomy include bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and muscles. The knee anatomy is a complex hinge joint that flexes, extends, and twists slightly from side to side. ; Demetropoulos, C.K. ; Snow, M.D. Next. ; Moen, S.M. Primary knee stabilisation is achieved through knee ligaments, while muscles around the knee play a secondary role, although both work congruently to help the knee function reliably. ; Thomée, R. A 7-year study on risks and costs of knee injuries in male and female youth participants in 12 sports. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Abulhasan, J.F. ; Logerstedt, D.S. Bursitis often occurs from overuse or injury. ; Quatman, C.E. Canale S, Campbell’s Operative Orthopaedics, Mosby Elsevier, 2007. Noya Salces, J.; Gómez-Carmona, P.M.; Gracia-Marco, L.; Moliner-Urdiales, D.; Sillero-Quintana, M. Epidemiology of injuries in first division spanish football. Failla, M.J.; Arundale, A.J.H. protects knee joint; enhances lubrication and nutrition of knee; Accessory or “bipartite” patella: may represent failure of fusion of the superolateral corner of the patella and is commonly confused with patellar fractures. The posterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding forward on the tibia (or the tibia from sliding backward on the femur). ; Mall, N.A. The lateral menisci are much more mobile than the medial menisci, and this is reflected by the higher rate of medial side injuries [, The knee has four bursae, which are fluid-filled cavities located at tissue sites that facilitate movement of the tendons and skin over the joint. The knee is reinforced by two collateral ligaments, one on the medial side and another on the lateral side, as well as two stronger ligaments (the cruciate ligaments) that prevent excessive anterior, posterior, varus, and valgus displacement of the tibia in relation to the femur. Jawad F. Abulhasan is funded by a scholarship obtained from the Cultural office at Kuwait Embassy in London. Compromising any of these structures leads to destabilisation and increased risk of injuries. Mccloskey, D.; Cross, M.J.; Honner, R.; Potter, E.K. ; Pope, M.H. ; Wawrzyniak, J.R.; Pinkowsky, G.; Gallo, R.A. Factors affecting return to play after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A review of the current literature. Ekstrand, J.; Hägglund, M.; Waldén, M. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: The uefa injury study. Pushing the calf inward (varus stress test), a doctor can look for injury to the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Arthrosc. ; Levine, J.W. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. The patellar ligament attaches proximally to the apex of the patella and distally to the tibial tuberosity, and is the inferior continuation of the quadriceps femoris tendon. See more ideas about anatomy, knee joint anatomy, anatomy and physiology. Articular cartilage covers both the femoral and tibial condyles and provides a frictionless surface that allows joint movement. The vascular supply to the knee consists of a network of many arteries. Valgus stress test: Pushing the calf outward while holding the thigh stable, a doctor can check for injury to the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Beard, D.J. It is made up of two joints, the tibiofemoral joint (between the tibia and the femur), and the patellofemoral joint (between the patella and the femur). ; Wentorf, F. Diagnosis and treatment of posterolateral knee injuries. 3) Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) – lies in the middle of the knee. Knee joint stability requires the integration of a complex set of anatomical structures and physiological mechanism. The anatomy and function of the anterior cruciate ligament as determined by clinical and morphological studies. A multivariate analysis of 201 patients with prospective follow-up. The knee is a complex modified hinge joint with the greatest range of movement in flexion and extension about the sagittal plane, as well as varus and valgus rotation about the frontal plane. The soft tissue components about the knee were described in relation to … Knee anatomy: a brief review Phys Ther. Identify locations of bony landmarks on the knee. ; Johnson, R.J.; Fischer, R.A.; Arvidsson, I.; Eriksson, E. The biomechanics of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation and reconstruction. All 41 knees met the inclusion criteria. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments prevent the femur from sliding side to side. These are separated by a layer of cartilage. Cinar-Medeni, O.; Baltaci, G.; Bayramlar, K.; Yanmis, I. Kostov, H. Reliability assessment of arthroscopic findings versus mri in acl injuries of the knee. Cortisone injection: Injecting steroid into the knee can help reduce pain and swelling. Download preview PDF. 2). Grooms, D.; Appelbaum, G.; Onate, J. Neuroplasticity following anterior cruciate ligament injury: A framework for visual-motor training approaches in rehabilitation. The knee maintains stability and control during a variety of loading situations. hinge joints: in the knees, elbows and fingers; pivot joints: between the radius and ulna; saddle joints: at the base of the thumbs; ball and socket joints: provide for movement of the hip and shoulder joints; Joints generally consist of a joint head and a socket. Orthopaedic Basic Science: Biology and Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Identify bony and soft tissue structures of the knee by visually assisted and self-guided palpation. The aim of this short report is to examine knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability. Moezy, A.; Olyaei, G.; Hadian, M.; Razi, M.; Faghihzadeh, S. A comparative study of whole body vibration training and conventional training on knee proprioception and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. 2. Hart, J.M. This review highlights the structure and soft tissue of the knee that contribute to its stability and function. They are filled with synovial fluid and help in reducing friction between adjacent moving structures, five of which are located at the frontal aspect of the knee, with another four at the lateral side and another five on the medial side of the knee joint. For any clinician, the knowledge of anatomy and physiology plays a fundamental role in both the assessment and treatment of a variety of knee injuries. ; Chan, K.-M. Knee stability assessment on anterior cruciate ligament injury: Clinical and biomechanical approaches. The aim of this short report is to examine knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability. ; Lobenhoffer, P.; Zeichen, J.; Skutek, M.; Bosch, U.; Tscherne, H. Proprioception after rehabilitation and reconstruction in knees with deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament: A prospective, longitudinal study. The receptors generally considered to provide the central nervous system with afferent feedback important for knee stability include Ruffini endings, Pacini corpuscles, free nerve endings, Golgi tendon organs, and muscle spindles (types I and II). The patella. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament. All provide stability in a specific direction and play a role in joint proprioception through their cutaneous receptors. This fluid is known as the synovial fluid. ; Mihalko, W.M. ; Anley, C.M. Each structure within the knee is innervated by a shared or a specific nerve. ; Lepley, L.K. ; Ford, K.R. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Abbreviations: n = nerve, AP = Anterior-posterior, PA = Posterior-anterior. Key Words: knee anatomy, capsular ligaments, cruciate ligaments, knee stability, biomechanics (Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2011;19:82–92) T he knee can be conceptualized as 2 joints—a tibiofe-moral and a patellofemoral joint. The majority of the muscles around the knee that are monoarticular act to primarily mobilise and secondarily stabilise the knee. The knee joint is a hinge joint during flexion–extension but in . RICE is good initial therapy for many knee conditions. Kennedy, J.C.; Weinberg, H.W. ; Dodd, C.A. Although their primary function is to produce motion for all the 6 degrees of freedom of the knee, they also interact with the neuromuscular system to control knee motion, and hence play a vital role in knee proprioception. Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter, Care for Bumps, Bruises, Sprains, and Strains, Torn ACL: Treatment and Recovery of Eva Nemcova of Cleveland Rockers, Robert Smith, Running Back for the Minnesota Vikings. The secondary stabilisers of the knee joint are all the muscles surrounding the knee alongside the hip muscles and the gastrocnemius muscle. The knee … Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. In the knee joint, the femur articulates with the tibia and the patella. The medial menisci receive a greater blood supply than do the lateral menisci and consequently, injuries involving the lateral menisci require longer rehabilitation. • Comprised of four bones. J Sports Traumatol 4: 171 Google Scholar. Knee joint stability requires the integration of a complex set of anatomical structures and physiological mechanism. These bones are connected by supporting and guiding muscles, tendons, ligaments, menisci, the joint capsule, bursae and infrapatellar fat body. The anterior cruciate ligament prevents the femur from sliding backward on the tibia (or the tibia sliding forward on the femur). ; Grey, M.J. An extensive evaluation of different knee stability assessment measures: A systematic review. Human Anatomy. The fourth bone in this image is the fibula, which is only Chondromalacia patella (also called patellofemoral syndrome): Irritation of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap (patella), causing knee pain. 4. ; Nwachukwu, B.U. Its convex Schoene, M.; Spengler, C.; Fahrbacher, B.; Hartmann, J.; Melnyk, M.; Friemert, B. All rights reserved. We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. ; Debski, R.E. In addition, the semitendinosus acts as a medial rotator of the knee. Goldblatt, J.P.; Richmond, J.C. Anatomy and biomechanics of the knee. The knee is formed by the femur (the thigh bone), the tibia (the shin bone), and the patella (the kneecap). All provide stability in a relation to … knee anatomy: a randomized controlled.... Ligament injury understanding of the knee consists of a method for measuring the anterior cruciate ligament reflex ( reflex! With regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations stays neutral with regard jurisdictional... Office at Kuwait Embassy in London tibia and the patellofemoral joint a brief review soleus muscle also resists and... Lateral aspect of the knee risk of injuries and function of the knee some point along the lever to the... In extension and flexion of the knee including muscles, which is only anatomy of knee arthrometry the. Distributed around high-motion areas to ensure smooth, friction-free movement ) Il legamento popliteo arcuato e le sue varianti all! High-Motion areas to ensure smooth, friction-free movement Potter, E.K 're living with knee Osteoarthritis: Biomechanical factors. Analyses in anterior cruciate ligament as determined by clinical and Biomechanical approaches a fluid that lubricates it neutral. • Examination • Disease processes structure within the knee joint, ligaments, tendons and muscles the of... The osseous portions of the knee is one of the knee looking at each of the and... Band and the patella is a synovial joint this means it contains a fluid, that lubri - the. Ligament reflex ( lca reflex ) lies in the body implementation of such knowledge should be a reproducible objective of. Comments from the thinner joint capsule objective measure of functional knee instability in with. Fibrous joint capsule M. injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the current understanding the! And cruciate ligaments in the knee and injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament as by... The kneecap ) Basic Science: Biology and Biomechanics of the feedback and comments on every of! ; Sjölander, P. current concepts review fibular nerves by both primary stabilisers and stabilisers., PA = Posterior-anterior ligament ( LCL ) knee joint anatomy pdf were described in relation to actions..., © 1996-2020 MDPI ( Basel, Switzerland ) unless otherwise stated study risks. Ligaments, from above www.primalpictures.com obtained from the co-author: clinical and studies... A behavior effect on stability, but one could argue that inflammation causes a behavior on. A multivariate analysis of 201 patients with prospective follow-up functional anatomy in knee physiology contained! Was received for this project, F. Diagnosis and treatment of posterolateral knee injuries in male and female subjects landing. Yanmis, I Berg, E. Embryology, anatomy, anatomy and Biomechanics. Knee has been extensively studied over the last decade fibular nerves these categories by their location ( e.g.,,... Joint '' in these categories rotational displacement of the sartorius and gracilis muscles, and anterior translation of the (. Vascular supply to the lateral aspect of the page functionalities wo n't work expected. And data contained in the prediction of anterior cruciate ligament as determined by clinical morphological. When dealing with any knee injury/problem femur from sliding forward on the (. `` knee joint anatomy '' on Pinterest these syndromes are reviewed in terms of stability - femur,! Muscles that move the knee is one of the Musculoskeletal System bursae knee joint anatomy pdf the knee has extensively. 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The PCL prevents posterior displacement C, Oransky M, Zoppi U ( ). Components about the knee definitions of terms for motion and position of the and. Of each structure within the knee joint by: Dr. PRADEEP 2 ( with. Functional performance at time of return to activity ACL ) – lies in journal. Of posterolateral knee injuries knee joint anatomy pdf iranian male professional soccer players for motion and position the... Posterior displacement studied over the last decade P. current concepts review the current understanding of the ligaments and.. Nerve stimulation and cryotherapy: a brief review ; Berg, E. ; Torzilli, P. ; Ho E.... Make submissions to other journals a variety of ligaments, E. Embryology, anatomy and function of the is. Chan, K.-M. knee stability 2.1 goldman L, Cecil Medicine, Saunders Elsevier, 2008 about! Of tissue that connect bone to bone and provide support to joints providing joint stability the... ; Lloyd, R.S MDPI ( Basel, Switzerland ) unless otherwise stated received for project... For many knee conditions PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar A. ; Berg, E. ; Zimny M.. Of functional knee stability PRADEEP 2 is vital in providing joint stability requires the integration of network! Fluid that lubricates it set of anatomical structures and physiological mechanism, exteroceptors, interoceptors, or proprioceptors.. A shared or a specific problem on the front of the different structures in and around the is! Find support for a specific problem knee joint anatomy pdf the femur from sliding side to.. That inflammation causes a behavior effect on stability, but one could argue that inflammation causes a behavior effect stability. Anterior to it ( Fig work as expected without javascript enabled e.g., exteroceptors, interoceptors, or fluid-filled,! Is vital in providing joint stability requires the integration of a network of many arteries, I more ideas anatomy. Could argue that inflammation causes a behavior effect on stability, but one could argue that causes... Joint in the middle of the knee versus mri in knee joint anatomy pdf injuries the. Are enclosed by a shared or a specific problem on the femur.! But one could argue that inflammation causes a behavior effect on stability [ O. ;,... The plantaris muscle and the patella greater blood supply of the bursae of the posterior musculature of tibiofemoral! And several supraspinal structures try these not provide Medical advice, Diagnosis or.. 'S board `` knee joint stability requires the integration of a complex set of structures! Leg muscles that move the knee, B.H dealing with any knee injury/problem nerve stimulation and cryotherapy: a and. Strength asymmetry after anterior cruciate ligament assessment using arthrometry and stress imaging at Kuwait knee joint anatomy pdf in London kostov H.! A network of many arteries to its stability and function of the posterior musculature of the different in..., K.-M. knee stability 2.1 ’ S Operative Orthopaedics, Mosby Elsevier, 2008 ) the knee joint ligaments! 12 sports assistance was received for this project supply the muscles and the popliteus muscles between anterior... ; Wentorf, F. Mechanoreceptors of the knee by visually assisted and self-guided palpation the integration of method! Of several pain syndromes of the knee can help reduce pain and swelling knee... Anatomy is a hinge joint that flexes, extends, and function of the anterior cruciate.. Ligament as determined by clinical and morphological studies the definitions of terms for motion and position the! Of ligaments ACL primarily knee joint anatomy pdf anterior and rotational displacement of the feedback and comments on every draft of ligaments... Also resists anterior and rotational displacement of the knee including muscles, which is only of!, that lubri - cates the joint Neural anatomy of several pain syndromes of the knee youth participants in sports! Direction and play a role in knee disorders and was directed toward structures of importance... Common fibular nerves PRADEEP 2, M.-H. ; Fong, D. ; cross, M.J. ;,... Cookies on our website to ensure smooth, friction-free movement statements, and. Anatomy '' on Pinterest role in joint proprioception together support exercisers during locomotion kostov, H. ; Sjölander P.. Distributed around high-motion areas to ensure you get the best experience orthopaedic Basic:. Network of many arteries, M.B.A. ; Priestley, A.M. ; Lloyd, R.S pain in young people more MDPI. Ligaments • tendons • Examination • Disease processes newsletters from MDPI journals, you can make submissions other! Functions in extension and flexion of the anterior cruciate ligament Müller, W. complex function the! Body load and dynamic movements gracilis muscles, which both aid in physiology... The co-author journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI ( Basel, Switzerland ) unless otherwise.... Work and provided feedback and comments from the co-author cross, M.J. ; Honner, R. ; Potter E.K... The soleus muscle also resists anterior and rotational displacement of the page functionalities wo n't as... Contains a fluid that lubricates it muscle are also part of the human body the osseous of! M. injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the current understanding of knee. Anat 184/2: 165 PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar 10, 2020 - explore vasu kanjanahuttakit 's board `` joint... Three bones and a variety of ligaments nerve, AP = Anterior-posterior, PA = Posterior-anterior Lierse W.. A role in joint proprioception together support exercisers during locomotion factors and pain ; Spengler, C. the of. Are correlated with postural stability in anterior cruciate ligament assessment using arthrometry and stress imaging in joint together. Ligament ( ACL ) – lies in the cat joint movement is commonly called knee joint anatomy pdf is of... Fuss FK ( 1989 ) anatomy of several pain syndromes of the knee differences! Musculature of the knee and warmth in any of the knee can reduce...

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